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Seed certification and maize, rice and cowpea productivity in Nigeria: an insight based on nationally representative farm household data and seed company location data
Assfaw Wossen, T.
Review StatusInternal Review
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Despite the potential importance of seed quality to agricultural productivity growth, many governments in sub-Saharan Africa lack the capacity to expand quality assurance systems even where there is expressed interest. This study aims to evidence the value of quality assurance systems with an analysis of efforts to produce and distribute certified seed in Nigeria. We assess the associations between quantities of certified seeds produced and spatial variations in production locations proxied by headquarter locations of seed companies producing certified seeds, on the one hand, with spatial variations in the use of certified seed, yields, and output at the farm level, on the other hand. Our analysis covers three crops that are important to food security in Nigeria: maize, rice, and cowpea. Our analysis integrates information on seed quantities produced and locations of seed companies with nationally representative panel data from a survey of farm households and spatially explicit rainfall and temperature data. We find a positive relationship between certified seed production in proximity to farm households and farm-level use of certified seeds, yields, and output, although this effect is diminishing at the margin. These diminishing marginal effects may be partly due to two factors. First, the yield gains from certified seeds tend to vary considerably within each state, suggesting that either quality issues persist in the seed supply chain or farmers are not using complementary inputs or appropriate management techniques when using quality seed. Second, it may be that as certified seed becomes more available to farmers, its use spreads from higher-return farms to lower-return farms, thereby diminishing the gains on the extensive margin. Although more rigorous assessments of causal effects and cost-effectiveness are needed to validate these findings, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are diminishing returns to seed quality assurance. Policymakers, regulators, and seed providers may benefit from identifying optimal, crop-specific target quantities or rates for certified seed production rather than aiming for certification of all seed produced in a market.
Multi standard citation
Permanent link to this itemhttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12478/8207
IITA Authors ORCID
P. Lava Kumarhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4388-6510
Tesfamicheal Wossen Assfawhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3672-2676
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Seed Quality; Agriculture; Agricultural Products; Agricultural Productivity; Capacity Development; Quality Assurance; Analysis; Certified Seed; Seed; Production; Yields; Input Output Analysis; Inputs; Maize; Rice; Cowpeas; Quantity Controls; Households; Rain; Rainfall Patterns; Precipitation; Temperature Data; Geography; Marginal Analysis; Cost Effectiveness Analysis; Government Policy; Policy Innovation