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dc.contributor.authorSullivan, D.J.
dc.contributor.authorNeuenschwander, P.
dc.identifier.citationSullivan, D.J. & Neuenschwander, P. (1988). Melanization of eggs and larvae of the parasitoid, Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis)(Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), by the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 120(1), 63-71.
dc.description.abstractThe encyrtid wasp Epidinocarsis lopezi (De Santis) has been introduced into Africa as a biological control agent against the cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero. This host has a defense reaction against the immature parasitoid that involves encapsulation and melanization. Under laboratory conditions, 37.5% of once-stung cassava mealybugs had been parasitized, as indicated by eggs and larvae of the parasitoid in dissected hosts. Of these parasitized cassava mealybugs, 89.6% contained melanized particles (egg, partially melanized larva, internal host tissues, exoskeleton wound scars). Some of the parasitoid larvae were only partially melanized, and either freed themselves from the melanized capsule or else shed it at the next molt. By the 3rd day of their development only 12.5% were completely melanized. In cassava mealybugs with melanized host tissue but no living parasitoid, the survival of the host was not affected by the melanization. The mealybug itself sometimes shed black particles at the next molt and these were found attached to the cast skins. When superparasitized in the laboratory, 68.6% of twice-stung cassava mealybugs contained parasitoids. Mummies collected from a field experiment showed that melanization rates of mummies increased with increasing parasitization rates. Thus, melanization in the cassava mealybug was commonly triggered when E. lopezi oviposited, but this defense reaction was mostly ineffective, permitting the introduced parasitoid to be a successful biological control agent in Africa against the cassava mealybug, a major pest on this important food crop.
dc.subjectPhenacoccus Manihoti
dc.subjectEpidinocarsis Lopezi
dc.subjectDisease Control
dc.titleMelanization of eggs and larvae of the parasitoid, Epidinocarsis lopezi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), by the cassava mealybug, Phenacoccus manihoti (Homoptera:Pseudococcidae)
dc.typeJournal Article
cg.contributor.crpRoots, Tubers and Bananas
cg.contributor.affiliationFordham University
cg.contributor.affiliationInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture
cg.coverage.regionAfrica South of Sahara
cg.coverage.hubHeadquarters and Western Africa Hub
cg.researchthemePlant Production and Health
cg.authorship.typesCGIAR and advanced research institute
cg.iitasubjectDisease Control
cg.iitasubjectPests of Plants
cg.iitasubjectPlant Breeding
cg.iitasubjectPlant Diseases
cg.iitasubjectPlant Health
cg.iitasubjectPlant Production
cg.journalThe Canadian Entomologist
cg.notesPublished online: 31 May 2012
cg.accessibilitystatusLimited Access
cg.reviewstatusPeer Review
cg.usagerightslicenseCopyrighted; all rights reserved
cg.iitaauthor.identifierPeter NEUENSCHWANDER: 0000-0003-0580-0376

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