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Prediction of functional characteristics of gari (cassava flakes) using near-infrared reflectance spectrometry
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Gari is a creamy, granular flour obtained from roasting fermented cassava mash. Its preparation involves several unit operations, including fermentation, which is essential in gari production. Fermentation brings about specific biochemical changes in cassava starch due to the actions of lactic acid bacteria. Consequently, it gives rise to organic acids and a significant reduction in the pH. Consumer preferences for gari are influenced by these changes and impact specific functional characteristics, which are often linked to cassava genotypes. Measurement of these functional characteristics is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, this study aimed to develop high-throughput and less expensive prediction models for water absorption capacity, swelling power, bulk density, and dispersibility using Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS). Gari was produced from 63 cassava genotypes using the standard method developed in the RTB foods project. The prediction model was developed by dividing the gari samples into two sets of 48 samples for calibration and 15 samples as the validation set. The gari samples were transferred into a ring cell cup and scanned on the NIRS machine within the Vis-NIR range of 400–2,498 nm wavelength, though only the NIR range of 800–2,400 nm was used to build the model. Calibration models were developed using partial least regression algorithms after spectra preprocessing. Also, the gari samples were analysed in the laboratory for their functional properties to generate reference data. Results showed an excellent coefficient of determination in calibrations (R2 Cal) of 0.99, 0.97, 0.97, and 0.89 for bulk density, swelling power, dispersibility, and water absorption capacity, respectively. Also, the performances of the prediction models were tested using an independent set of 15 gari samples. A good prediction coefficient (R2 pred) and low standard error of prediction (SEP) was obtained as follows: Bulk density (0.98), Swelling power (0.93), WAC (0.68), Dispersibility (0.65), and solubility index (0.62), respectively. Therefore, NIRS prediction models in this study could provide a rapid screening tool for cassava breeding programs and food scientists to determine the food quality of cassava granular products (Gari).
Multi standard citation
Permanent link to this itemhttps://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12478/8209
IITA Authors ORCID
Alamu Emmanuel Oladejihttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6263-1359
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)